Reading and dating roman coins mens dating guide

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Reading and dating roman coins

Among the electrum coins of the Lion type the following deserve special mention. C., and who actually captured Sardes (Radet, La Lydie, p. In addition to the above-described coins there are contemporary specimens of which the type is a recumbent lion with reverted head (B. In this monetary reform regard seems to have been had to the weights of the two old electrum staters, each of which was now represented by an equal value, though not by an equal weight, of pure gold. 610-561), who, like the Persian monarchs, may have asserted his claim to the sole right of coinage in the precious metals. The only barbarians who could have made such copies were the Cimmerian hordes who overran central Asia Minor and a great part of the Lydian Empire in the eighth and seventh centuries B. but to reorganize the coinage of his empire on an entirely new basis, substituting pure gold and pure silver denominations in place of the natural electrum. Granting, however, that ingots were first stamped at Sardes, the fol- lowing primitive specimens may be preferably assigned to the Lydian capital. Whether these coins are Lydian or Ionian may be still an open question, but their primitive style and fabric renders it probable that they are antecedent to the Lion types, which seem to have superseded them about the time of (B. For the coins struck at Sardes after the Macedonian conquest see p. It was not, however, until after the defeat of Antiochus by the Romans at Magnesia, B. 190, that some of the more important Lydian towns began to issue bronze money, and it was only in Imperial times that a general revival of trade set in, and that every little community, of sufficient standing to rank as a , on the upper Cacus (B. Among the numerous types of the early electrum coins it is impossible to distinguish those which belong to Sardes from those which were issued by the Greek cities on the coast. For numerous other small electrum coins of this class, the minutest of which weighs no more than 2.2 grs., see B. the Forepart or Head of a Goat (1/2, 1/3, 1/12, 1/24, 1/48 stater), and (ii) those with the type Two Cocks or Cocks’ heads (1/2, 1/3, 1/6, 1/12 stater). I infer therefore that, during the reigns of the predecessors of Alyattes, Gyges (B. Under Persian rule it is highly probable that darics and sigloi were struck by the Satraps at Sardes, but there is, as yet, no evidence of the fact. The strongest evidence that the above-described Lion’s head Tritae were the coins most widely current in Lydia in the middle of the seventh century B. is the fact that barbarous copies of them are found, on which the lion’s head is rudely indicated in outline without any attempt at relief. The electrum currency, owing perhaps to its uncertain intrinsic value, appears to have fallen somewhat into discredit, if we may judge from the multiplication of private merchants’ or bankers’ countermarks on many of the specimens here assigned to the successors of Gyges; and it would seem that Croesus soon found it necessary, not only to introduce a new and distinctive type. On some rare specimens of the 1/3 and of the 1/6 are traces of letters, apparently (B. C., Lyd., xviii), which Six ingeniously explained as the Lydian form (with initial digamma) of the name of King Alyattes. These I prefer to assign conjecturally to Miletus, partly because the lion with reverted head is the recognized type of the coins of Miletus in later times, and partly because it is improbable that the coinage of a king of Lydia would exhibit a variety of types, one of the chief characteristics of the coinages of Oriental monarchies (e. ascended the throne of Lydia, one of his first objects seems to have been to propitiate the Greeks, in both Europe and Asia, by magnificent offerings of equal value to the great sanctuaries of Apollo at Delphi and Branchidae (Herod. To the early part of the reign of Croesus may probably be attributed the first introduction of a new type for the royal coins :— The combination of the Lion and the Bull is remarkable, and sug- gestive of a more widely extended empire. Eagle on bone; Amphora; Kybele seated; Dionysos in temple; Kalathos; and Artemis Persica as at the neighbouring Hierocaesareia. »M'berg »ANS , on the east slopes of Messogis near the modern Bulladan, about six miles north of Tripolis and overlooking the Lycus valley towards the Salbacus range in the south (B. Types—Zeus Lydios; Dionysos; Hades with Kerberos; Apollo standing, sometimes in temple; &c. Quasi-autonomous, apparently from time of Severus, &c., with heads of Roma or ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC. The coins of the other Attaleia, in Pamphylia, read ΑΤΤΑΛЄΩΝ. Probably opposite the modern Sirghe on the upper Hermus, some twenty miles north-east of the modern Kula (B.

Types—Heads of Zeus; Dionysos; Herakles; Apollo; rev. Busts on quasi-autonomous coins of ΔΗΜΟC, ΙЄΡΑ CVΝΚΛΗΤΟC, ΙЄΡΑ ΒΟVΛΗ, &c. The coins of the Upper Cilbiani, reading ΚΙΛΒΙΑΝΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΑΝΩ, range from Nero to Geta. In Imperial times the Cilbiani of the upper and lower plains seem to have been divided into two separate communes. Originally an Attalid outpost on the upper Gurduk-chai (Lycus ? Ordinary types—ΔΗΜΟC, ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC, ΘЄΟΝ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟΝ. Magistrates, Hiereus and First Archon in genitive case with .

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); Eirene; Artemis Ephesia; Goddess seated before naked Apollo and crowned by Nike standing on eagle (Num.